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Hisar / हिसार
This fierce clan had been the buffer by default shielding Hindus from foreign Islamic invasions from the west.Situated between 'Punjab region' and 'doab' (two rivers Yamuna and Ganga - this region today includes Delhi, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand and included West Punjab and Sindh (now in Pakistan). In the Punjab and Haryana, Jats had long cultivated the lands and ardently protected the inhabitants ('Chattis Kaum' or 36 communities) against the Islamic invasions from time to time. The city of Hisar was no different. Although founded by a Muslim ruler, Firozshah Tughlaq in 1354 AD, the city was predominantly Hindu. The word ‘Hisar’ is an Arabic word meaning ‘Fort’. The city, which we know today as ‘Hisar’, was originally called ‘Hisar Firoza (also Hisar-e-Firoza) or in other words the ‘Fort of Firoz’.
When Mohd. Gouri Won the second war of Panipat from Prithvi Raj Chauhan, he went back to his country Afghanistan from the place now known as Hisar. At that time Hisar was one of the important places to take rest on the road from Delhi.
The construction work of the city of Hisar was started in the year 1354 A.D. under the personal supervision of Firozshah himself who stayed here for a sufficient time. The boundary wall of Hisar Firoza was built with stones brought from the hills of Narsai. The fort city was also surrounded by a big ditch dug round the wall. A large and deep tank was constructed inside the fort, and the water used to replenish the ditch. Inside the fort a fine palace, having a complex of different buildings was built. Well laid out gardens added to the beauty of the palace. The initial stage of the city was completed after the incessant work of two and a half years.
The nobles and Amirs were also directed by the Sultan to get the residences built here. The buildings were constructed with lime and burnt bricks. The fort-city had four gates which were subsequently named as the Delhi Gate and Mori Gate to the east, the Nagori Gate to the south and Talaqi Gate to the west. These gates were completely razed in mid-eighties by then chief minister Bansi Lal to widen and modernize the roads.
While constructing the palace, popularly known as ‘Gujari Mahal’ for his beloved, Firozshah also built a new city around it. The Gujari Mahal still stands in its austere majesty. This palace is a complex of different buildings, including the royal residence of the sultan Firozshah, Shahi Darwaza, Diwan-e-Aam, Baradari with three tehkhanas, a hamam, a mosque and a pillar. The style of architecture of the Gujari Mahal is dignified. The palace has beautifully carved stone pillars.
Most of the material used for the constructing the Gujari Mahal complex including the nearby mosque was from Hindu or Jain temples desecrated and destroyed by Firozshah's army. The elaborate fingurines of dancers with musical instruments carved in stone can still be seen laid in the pillars and walls of the mosque.
In 1408 Hisar fell into the hands of rebels but was recovered by the royal army under the Emperor Mahmud Tughlaq in person. In 1411 the tract of Hansi came into the hands of Khizar Khan, and he ascended to the throne of Delhi in 1414 as the first Sultan of the Sayyad Dynasty. In 1420 the fief of Hisar was conferred on Mahmud Hassan as reward for good services. During the feeble dynasty of the Lodhis (1451-1526) Hisar was granted as a fief to Muhabbat Khan in the reign of Bahlol Lodi (1451-89)
When Babur invaded India in 1524-26, Hisar was an important strategic center of Ibrahim Lodi’s empire. Before the battle of Panipat in 1526, on reaching the Ghaggar, Babur learnt that the troops from Hisar, led by Hamid Khan, were advancing towards him. He then dispatched prince Humayun with an army sufficient to succeed in defeating the enemy. Babur handed over the city of Hisar to Humayun as a reward for his success in his first military expedition. Humayun ruled over India twice first from 1530 to 1540 and again from 1555 to 1556. During his first reign a mosque known as Jama Masjid was built here by Amir Muhammad in 1535.
During Akbar’s reign (1556-1605) Hisar became once more a place of considerable importance. It was made the headquarters of the revenue division known as a sirkar. As some of the Mughal Princes who were attached to Hisar, subsequently became the Emperors, the city of Hisar was then known in the history of India as the Duke of Wellington of the Mughal Era.
The last noteworthy participant in the history of the tract of Hisar before the advent of the British power was George Thomas (1756-1802). He was an independent mercenary who became ruler of a large tract of Haryana, including Hisar and Hansi, for a few years from 1797 to 1802. He got the area on a platter because by that time it stood ravaged by sikh misls who had got into serious conflict among themselves and the political vacuum created by internecine disagreements between the Jat and Maratha rulers as well as their intra-household conflicts. The Jahaz Pul and the Jahaz Kothi situated to the east of the city of Hisar still remind us of this 'Irish Soldier Of Fortune'. Thomas used the Jahaz Kothi, which was once a temple and had been converted into a mosque, as a residence. He was disposed of by the British shortly afterwards. The area was subsequently offered to the king of Jind (a Jat sikh of sidhu clan) who declined to accept it as the revenue collections were low.
Hisar gained importance in 1960s when the Agriculture
University was set up as an extension of the Punjab
Agricultural University, Ludhiana. Ever since, the
government's positive policies have played a vital role in
the economic development of the city. The industrial and
agricultural policy of the government has attracted large
number of farmers and entrepreneurs and has resulted into
the industrialization in and around the city.
Administrative set-up of District
At present Hisar district consists of four tehsils and three
sub-tehsils. The tehsils are Hisar, Hansi, Narnaund and
Adampur and the sub-tehsils are Barwala, Uklana and Bass.
Another interesting fact, Hisar has the maximum number of
permanent immigrants to US among all districts in Haryana.
According to US department of Homeland security, a recent
report on permanent immigration from Northern Indian
Districts of India subcontinent, in the state of Haryana,
hisar ranks no. 1 (with 893). At no. 2 Faridabad (812), no.
3 Karnal (656).
The city is mainly known for